Organic: Objections to non-organic foods (often led by a wellness coach with no scientific education or someone whose credentials read “mom and activist”) claim that the food is more nutritious and tastes better, but the primary argument is about the dangers of ingesting pesticides. Facts from reliable and unbiased sources differ.
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO): I covered this topic at length recently. Suffice it to say that the FDA does not use the term GMO because “people have been modifying plants for thousands of years through breeding and selection.” When they modify plants naturally, we have no better idea of their safety than when they do it by genetic engineering. Take bananas for example. Here is one article telling the many ways bananas are good for you. (Of course healthy-eating advocates wrote it, so it emphasizes organic bananas – even though any pesticide on the peel ends up in the trash.) This is followed by another article from England telling how zoo keepers don’t feed bananas to monkeys anymore because they have been (naturally) bred to be higher in sugar and lower in fiber which is bad for the monkeys’ teeth and can cause gastrointestinal problems. These bananas were modified naturally not by GMO methods and still there were undesirable results. Natural methods do the same thing; it just takes longer. GMO also reduces the guesswork in plant modification. It’s not some kind of Frankenstein lab experiment with us as the guinea pigs. The summary of this AP article pretty much says it all: "Genetic modifications to a plant can improve its quality, hardiness or resistance to pests or disease. Scientific studies have found no evidence that GMOs are more harmful than foods without genetic modifications." [emphasis added]
The fighters against GMO say, "We just want them labeled - we have a right to know what we're eating." But if there weren't an underlying effort to scare people about GMO, they wouldn't really care about those contents and would resent the added cost from another labeling regulation.